### Outcome Statements for Chemistry 130: Chemical Principles I

Last Update: November 25, 2013

Students enrolled in CHEM 130 are assumed to have a strong background in the material covered in CHEM 129(summarized below) and/or to have demonstrated strong proficiency in strands 1, 2 and 7 of the Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education curriculum.

- •Scientific method, theories, laws
- •Mathematics of chemistry
- •Atomic theory/atomic properties
- •Elements
- •Compounds
- •Stoichiometry
- •Enthalpy
- •Lewis Dot Structures

As such, this material will not be covered in depth in CHEM 130. However, it is left up to each individual instructor to decide on a proper level of review of these topics and to provide remediation for students whose skills are lacking. Students who are concerned about their level of preparation must speak with their instructor as soon as possible.

At the end of CHEM 130 a student will have the following skills and knowledge (grouped by topic). *Note that the number of outcome statements is not necessarily related to the amount of lecture time spent on a topic.*

* Mathematics of Chemistry *(all topics covered in laboratory)

- •In addition to being able to calculate an average, percent error, and standard deviation, will be able to determine a confidence limit for a data set using Excel, and relate these quantities to the precision and accuracy of the measurement
- •Understand that there is a difference between the uncertainty in a single measurement and the uncertainty in a set of measurements, the relationship of these to precision
- •Recognize the importance of error propagation and be able to perform a propagation of error calculation given the appropriate formula

*Thermodynamics**(note that the first ten outcomes are the same as in CHEM 129, they are repeated here because of their fundamental importance to chemistry)*

- •Be able to explain and use the First Law of Thermodynamics
- •Definition of specific heat (capacity) and heat capacity and use of specific heat in heating/cooling problems
- •Know definition of enthalpy, state function, exothermic, endothermic
- •Relationship of Δ
*H*to*q*for physical and chemical changes - •Explain the key features of a heating/cooling curve, including the definition (including sign) of Δ
*H*for different changes of state - •Understand and apply Hess’s Law
- •Definition of standard molar enthalpy of formation Δ
*H*_{f}^{0} - •Use Δ
*H*_{f}^{0}to predict Δ*H*for a reaction - •Be able to predict a change in temperature for a chemical reaction from Δ
*H*for a reaction using the specific heat of the solution - •From a temperature change, calculate Δ
*H*using the specific heat of the solution

- •Give and apply the Second Law of Thermodynamics
- •Give and apply the Third Law of Thermodynamics
- •Understand the concept of entropy as a measure of matter and energy dispersal
- •Be able to predict the sign of Δ
*S*for a chemical or physical change - •Use Third Law entropies to predict Δ
*S*for a reaction - •Understand the connection between entropy and enthalpy through the Gibbs free energy (Δ
*G*= Δ*H*–*T*Δ*S*), and the meaning of the sign of Δ*G* - •Calculate Δ
*G*from Δ*H*and Δ*S*at a given*T*, or from Δ*G*^{0} - •Describe the relationship between Δ
*G*and*K* - •Show that a reaction with a positive Δ
*G*can be made to occur by coupling it with a reaction with a negative Δ*G* - •Understand the difference between the information provided by kinetics and thermodynamics
- •Understand the differences between kinetic and thermodynamic stability

- •Explain the concept of reaction rate
- •Derive an instantaneous rate from rate data
- •Use initial rate data to determine a rate law
- •Understand and explain the meaning of a rate law, a rate constant and the order of the reaction
- •Be able to use the integrated rate laws for zero, first and second order reactions to graphically extract rate constants from experimental data
- •Understand and apply the concept of half-life
- •Explain collision theory of chemical reaction, and use it to describe the effect of reactant concentration on rate
- •Explain how orientation of reactants affects rate
- •Explain the relationship of
*E*to the rate and Δ_{a}*H*^{‡}for the reaction using a reaction profile diagram - •Know the difference between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts, explain how a catalyst works
- •Explain the relationship between the Arrhenius equation and collision theory, use the Arrhenius equation to determine
*E*_{a} - •Understand the concept of a reaction mechanism (stoichiometric versus intimate), and the relationship to the stoichiometry of the balanced chemical equation for the reaction
- •Describe what elementary steps are and give their molecularity for a given mechanism
- •Define the concept of a rate-determining step, and how that affects the overall rate
- •Define what an intermediate is, and be able find one in a given mechanism or on a reaction profile diagram
- •Explain what a transition state is, and be able to find one on a reaction profile diagram

- •Understand the nature of chemical equilibrium (reactions are reversible, equilibria are dynamic, nature of the equilibrium state is independent of how it was attained)
- •Write an equilibrium constant expression for any chemical reaction in terms of pressure or concentration (
*K*or_{p}*K*)_{c} - •Recognize that equilibrium constants written in this way are approximations of true thermodynamic equilibrium constants written in terms of fugacities and activities
- •Understand why solids and solvents do not appear in equilibrium expressions
- •Understand why equilibrium constants are unit-less
- •Know how
*K*changes as the chemical reaction is changed (stoichiometric coefficients change or reaction is reversed) - •Know how
*K*for a reaction may be expressed in terms of*K*for other reactions - •Recognize that the magnitude of K determines extent of reaction
- •Apply the reaction quotient,
*Q*, to predict the direction, if any, in which a chemical reaction will proceed to attain equilibrium - •Calculate
*K*from equilibrium concentrations or pressures - •Calculate concentrations or pressures of all chemical species from
*K* - •Apply Le Chatelier’s Principle

**Lewis Dot Structure Approach to Bonding ***(also in CHEM 131 Outcome Statements)*

- •Understand that only some electrons (valence electrons) participate in bonding while others (core electrons) do not
- •Determine the number of valence electrons for a main group element from its position in the periodic table
- •State the octet rule and explain why some elements are allowed to have an expanded octet
- •When presented with a formula or simple structural formula for a molecule or polyatomic ion, be able to draw a Lewis dot structure (including expanded octets and resonance structures), VSEPR structure, determine the hybridization of any atom in the molecule, and predict the actual structure
- •Understand that Lewis dot structures and valence bond theory are localized bonding models
- •Define formal charge, and be able to calculate it from a Lewis dot structure
- •Explain the difference between a formal charge and an oxidation number; be able to determine an oxidation number from a Lewis dot structure
- •Explain electronegativity and how that affects charge distribution in a bond
- •Explain the term resonance and why it must be invoked in Lewis dot structures; be able to draw resonance structures and resonance hybrids
- •Use bond enthalpies to estimate enthalpies of reactions, and explain why these Δ
*H*are only estimates_{rxn}